Trompe L'oeil is something you're probably familiar with. It literally means "trick of the eye" as in a faux treatment which replicates real life texture and dimension.
In Italy there were many trompe l'oeil paintings that I paid particular attention to since oftentimes one couldn't tell if it was 2-3 dimensional or flat, the art was so masterfully painted. Here are some examples of Italian trompe l'oeil (pronouced 'tromp loy') I photographed on our trip. There is alot of it in the Vatican and in museums.
All of these examples are flat painted surfaces, but the look of architectural detail and sculptural qualities was amazing.
Ceiling art abounds in churches and museums. Italian ceiling illusionism is called "di sotto in sù" and you really can get a stiff neck looking up for hours! (Quite worth it,
These feed my love of ceiling treatments! Enjoy.